EOS.IO is a blockchain protocol powered by the native cryptocurrency EOS. The protocol emulates most of the attributes of a real computer including hardware (CPU(s) & GPU(s) for processing, local/RAM memory, hard-disk storage) with the computing resources distributed equally among EOS cryptocurrency holders. EOSIO operates as a smart contract platform and decentralized operating system intended for the deployment of industrial-scale decentralized applications through a decentralized autonomous corporation model. The smart contract platform claims to eliminate transaction fees and also conduct millions of transactions per second.
Based on a white paper published in 2017, the EOSIO platform was developed by the private company block.one and released as open-source software on June 1, 2018. In order to ensure widespread distribution of the native cryptocurrency at the launch of the blockchain, one billion tokens were distributed as ERC-20 tokens by block.one. This provided the distribution to allow anyone to launch the EOS blockchain once the software was released. The CEO of block.one, Brendan Blumer, announced that block.one would support the EOSIO blockchain with over one billion USD in funding from the token sale and ultimately block.one raised over four billion USD to support the blockchain during the Initial Coin Offering (ICO) period.
The original test net, Dawn 1.0, was released on September 3, 2017, with test net versions Dawn 2.0 released on December 4, 2017, Dawn 3.0 on January 25, 2018 and Dawn 4.0 on May 7, 2018.
EOSIO’s Dawn 1.0 was launched on the EOSIO mainnet on June 1, 2018 and currently operating under version 1.8.1.
The aim of the platform is to provide decentralized application hosting, smart contract capability and decentralized storage of enterprise solutions that solve the scalability issues of blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum, as well as eliminating all fees for users. EOSIO accomplishes this by being both multi-threaded (able to run on multiple computer cores) as well as using delegated proof-of-stake for its consensus protocol. It aims to be the first decentralized operating system (EOSIO) that provides a development environment for decentralized applications like Steemit, a social network with monetary incentives and BitShares, a decentralized cryptocurrency exchange (DEX).
The main native token, EOS, is a utility token that provides both bandwidth and storage on the blockchain, in proportion to total stake (owning 1% of EOS tokens allows for usage of up to 1% of the total available bandwidth). EOS tokens also allow the owner to cast votes and participate in the on-chain governance of the blockchain, again in proportion to the owner’s stake. The EOSIO platform will vote for 21 block producers during its launch, who will generate and validate blocks within a 500 ms block time. General purpose and smart contract language to build upon the EOS platform will be WebAssembly (Rust, C, C++), a portable stack machine that is developed at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).